Document Type : Original Article


Department of Venomous animals and Antivenom Production, Karaj Razi Serum Making Institute, Karaj, Iran


Introduction and Aim: Echis carinatus are small in size and are considered to be very biting invasive snakes. Snake venom is a type of snake saliva that is secreted through the salivary glands and stored in the venom sac. A problem in human societies, especially in rural areas, is snake bites, which are not treated properly. The aim of this study is evaluation of toxicity of saliva of Echis carinatus sochureki on cells growth and the mechanisms involved.
Methods: In this study, the effect of Echis carinatus sochureki saliva on human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) cells growth was determined by the inverted microscope, MTT assay, and Neutral red assay. The integrity of the cell membrane through LDH release was also measured.
Results: The MTT assay and Neutral red assay showed a significant (p < /em>˂0.001) cytotoxic effect of Echis carinatus sochureki salvia on HDF cells growth after 24 hours treatment. Also, Echis carinatus sochureki venom caused a significant (p < /em>˂0.001) increase in LDH release. Various morphological abnormalities were observed in cells.
Conclusion: The Echis carinatus sochureki saliva causes cytotoxic effects on HDF cells by the necrotic mechanism. The results of this study will be useful for future research in this field, as well as therapeutic methods for snake bites.


Main Subjects

Balali Bahadorani, M. and Zare Mirakabadi, A. 2016. Cytopathic effect of snake (echis carinatus) venom on human embryonic kidney cells. Asia Pacific Journal of Medical Toxicology, 5(3): 88-93..
Dehghani, R., Fathi, B., Shahi, M.P. and Jazayeri, M. 2014. Ten years of snakebites in iran. Toxicon, 90: 291-298.
Doley, R., Jackson, K., Madaras, F., Vonk, F., Vidal, N. and Mirtschin, P. 2011. Snake venom: From fieldwork to the clinic. BioEssays, 33(4): 269-279.
Esmaeili Jahromi, H., Zare Mirakabadi, A. and Kamalzadeh, M. 2016. Evaluation of iranian snake ‘macrovipera lebetina’venom cytotoxicity in kidney cell line hek-293.
Feofanov, A.V., Sharonov, G.V., Astapova, M.V., Rodionov, D.I., Utkin, Y.N. and Arseniev, A.S. 2005. Cancer cell injury by cytotoxins from cobra venom is mediated through lysosomal damage. Biochemical Journal, 390(1): 11-18.
Garcıa, L., e Silva, L.P., Ramos, O., Carmona, A., Bersanetti, P. and Selistre-de-Araujo, H. 2004. The effect of post-translational modifications on the hemorrhagic activity of snake venom metalloproteinases. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology & Pharmacology, 138(1): 23-32.
Garzi, A., Nazari, A. and Abbasi, M. 2013. Deleterious effects of echis carinatus venom on liver and lung tissues of a bird species. Journal of Animal Biology, 5(3): 51-58.
Gasanov, S.E., Dagda, R.K. and Rael, E.D. 2014. Snake venom cytotoxins, phospholipase a2s, and zn2+-dependent metalloproteinases: Mechanisms of action and pharmacological relevance. Journal of clinical toxicology, 4(1): 1000181.
Goswami, P.K., Samant, M. and Srivastava, R.S. 2014. Snake venom, anti-snake venom & potential of snake venom. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 6(5): 4-7.
Gutiérrez, J., Romero, M., Díaz, C., Borkow, G. and Ovadia, M. 1995. Isolation and characterization of a metalloproteinase with weak hemorrhagic activity from the venom of the snake bothrops asper (terciopelo). Toxicon, 33(1): 19-29.
Gutiérrez, J.M., Williams, D., Fan, H.W. and Warrell, D.A. 2010. Snakebite envenoming from a global perspective: Towards an integrated approach. Toxicon, 56(7): 1223-1235.
Hekmat, A., Afrough, M., Hesami Tackallou, S. and Ahmad, F. 2020. Synergistic effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles and paclitaxel combination on the DNA structure and their antiproliferative role on mda-mb-231cells. Journal of Nanoanalysis: -. DOI 10.22034/jna.2020.1869287.1141.
Hekmat, A. and Saboury, A.A. 2019. Structural effects of the syntheticcobalt–manganese-zinc ferrite nanoparticles (Co 0.3 Mn 0.2 Zn 0.5Fe2O4 NPs) on DNA and its antiproliferative effect on t47dcells. BioNanoScience, 9(4): 821-832.
Hekmat, A., Saboury, A.A., Divsalar, A. and Seyedarabi, A. 2013. Structural effects of tio2 nanoparticles and doxorubicin on DNA and their antiproliferative roles in t47d and mcf7 cells. Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry (Formerly Current Medicinal Chemistry-Anti-Cancer Agents), 13(6): 932-951.
Koh, D., Armugam, A. and Jeyaseelan, K. 2006. Snake venom components and their applications in biomedicine. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS, 63(24): 3030-3041.
Kolde, H.-J. 2004. Haemostasis: Physiology, pathology, diagnostics. Pentapharm.
Konshina, A.G., Boldyrev, I.A., Utkin, Y.N., Omel'kov, A.V. and Efremov, R.G. 2011. Snake cytotoxins bind to membranes via interactions with phosphatidylserine head groups of lipids. PloS one, 6(4): e19064.
Mello, D.F., Trevisan, R., Rivera, N., Geitner, N.K., Di Giulio, R.T., Wiesner, M.R., Hsu-Kim, H. and Meyer, J.N. 2020. Caveats to the use of mtt, neutral red, hoechst and resazurin to measure silver nanoparticle cytotoxicity. Chemico-biological interactions, 315: 108868.