Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Developmental Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Biology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran


Introduction and Aim: Widespread consumption of cell phones is the most crucial risk factor f human health in the age of technology. This study aimed to explore the effects of 4G mobile phone radiation on the level of spermatogenesis in male rats in 30 days.
Methods: In this laboratory experimental study, the male NMRI rats were divided into 3 groups: the control group (without exposure to 4G mobile phone for 30 days continuously), the sham group (exposure to 4G mobile phones, but no call within 30 days), and the experimental group (exposure to 4G cellular mobile (SAR=0.482 W/Kg, 1800 MHZ) during calls in progress for 30 days). All rats were sacrificed after 30 days and their organs (testicular and epididymis) were separated.
Results: The mean spermatid count and the mean leydig cells count was decreased significantly (p < 0.001) after exposure time. However, the mean count of spermatogonia was not changed, significantly. Also, the study of micrographs indicated the morphology of testis and epididymis changed. The testicular size changed (p < 0.001), however, the testicular weight was not changed, significantly.
Conclusion: The exposure of 4G mobile waves decreased spermatogenesis. Our results warrant further inquiries on the potential effects of electromagnetic field (EMF) from mobile phones on male fertility.


Main Subjects

Aksen, F., Dasdag, S., Akdag, M.Z., Askin, M. and Dasdag, M.M. 2004. The effects of whole-body cell phone exposure on the t1 relaxation times and trace elements in the serum of rats. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, 23(1): 7-17.
Baharara, J., Hadad, F., Shariatzade, M.-A. and Amirahmadi, M. 2011. The genotoxic effects of mobile phone waves on induction of chromosomal damages in embryos of balb/c mice. Journal of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, 14 (4).
Baharara, J., Parivar, K., Ashraf, A. and Azizi, M. 2009. The effect of cell phone waves on hematopoietic system of immature balb/c mice. KAUMS Journal (FEYZ), 13(2): 75-81.
Calvente, I., Fernandez, M., Villalba, J., Olea, N. and Nuñez, M. 2010. Exposure to electromagnetic fields (non-ionizing radiation) and its relationship with childhood leukemia: A systematic review. Science of the total environment, 408(16): 3062-3069.
Dasdag, S., Akdag, M.Z., Ulukaya, E., Uzunlar, A.K. and Ocak, A.R. 2009. Effect of mobile phone exposure on apoptotic glial cells and status of oxidative stress in rat brain. Electromagnetic biology and medicine, 28(4): 342-354.
Deepinder, F., Makker, K. and Agarwal, A. 2007. Cell phones and male infertility: Dissecting the relationship. Reproductive biomedicine online, 15(3): 266-270.
Ding, S.-S., Ping, S. and Hong, T. 2018. Association between daily exposure to electromagnetic radiation from 4g smartphone and 2.45-ghz wi-fi and oxidative damage to semen of males attending a genetics clinic: A primary study. Int J Clin Exp Med, 11(3): 2821-2830.
Erogul, O., Oztas, E., Yildirim, I., Kir, T., Aydur, E., Komesli, G., Irkilata, H.C., Irmak, M.K. and Peker, A.F. 2006. Effects of electromagnetic radiation from a cellular phone on human sperm motility: An in vitro study. Archives of medical research, 37(7): 840-843.
Guney, M., Ozguner, F., Oral, B., Karahan, N. and Mungan, T. 2007. 900 mhz radiofrequency-induced histopathologic changes and oxidative stress in rat endometrium: Protection by vitamins e and c. Toxicology and industrial health, 23(7): 411-420.
Hekmat, A., Fahimi, Z. and Haeri Rohani, S.A. 2020. The effects of noise pollution on blood serum protein of wistar male rats. Nova Biologica Reperta, 7(1): 19-29.
Hekmat, A., Saboury, A.A. and Moosavi-Movahedi, A.A. 2013. The toxic effects of mobile phone radiofrequency (940 mhz) on the structure of calf thymus DNA. Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, 88: 35-41.
Kilicalp, D., Değer, Y. and Cinar, A. 2009. Effects of green tea on electroc., Askin, M. and Dasdag, M.M. 2004. The effects o ardiography of guinea pigs exposed to electromagnetic field emitted by mobile phones. Kafkas Univ Vet Fak Derg Research, 15(6): 823-828.
Kundi, M., Mild, K.H., Hardell, L. and Mattsson, M.-O. 2004. Mobile telephones and cancer—a review of epidemiological evidence. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B, 7(5): 351-384.
Noor, N.A., Mohammed, H.S., Khadrawy, Y.A., Ezz, H.S.A. and Radwan, N.M. 2015. Evaluation of the neuroprotective effect of taurine and green tea extract against oxidative stress induced by pilocarpine during status epilepticus. The Journal of Basic & Applied Zoology, 72: 8-15.
Oh, J.J., Byun, S.-S., Lee, S.E., Choe, G. and Hong, S.K. 2018. Effect of electromagnetic waves from mobile phones on spermatogenesis in the era of 4g-lte. BioMed research international, 2018.
Paulraj, R. and Behari, J. 2006. Single strand DNA breaks in rat brain cells exposed to microwave radiation. Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis, 596(1-2): 76-80.
Russo, A., Piovano, M., Lombardo, L., Garbarino, J. and Cardile, V. 2008. Lichen metabolites prevent uv light and nitric oxide-mediated plasmid DNA damage and induce apoptosis in human melanoma cells. Life sciences, 83(13-14): 468-474.
Scheeringa, M.S. and Zeanah, C.H. 1995. Symptom expression and trauma variables in children under 48 months of age. Infant mental health journal, 16(4): 259-270.
Valbonesi, P., Franzellitti, S., Bersani, F., Contin, A. and Fabbri, E. 2016. Activity and expression of acetylcholinesterase in pc12 cells exposed to intermittent 1.8 ghz 217-gsm mobile phone signal. International journal of radiation biology, 92(1): 1-10.
Wdowiak, A., Wdowiak, L. and Wiktor, H. 2007. Evaluation of the effect of using mobile phones on male fertility. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 14(1).