Document Type : Original Article


1 Skin and Stem Cell Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran - - Skin and Stem Cell Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Biology, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Hamedan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Hamedan, Iran

3 Avicenna International College, Budapest, Hungary

4 Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Tabriz Southern West Branch, Azarbayjan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz, Iran



Background and Aim: Despite numerous studies on the biological properties and differentiability of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells, these studies are still ongoing in order to achieve new findings. Therefore, the present study investigates the biological properties of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells and their ability to differentiate into osteocyte and adipocyte.
Materials and Methods: In this experimental laboratory study, 30 whole placenta specimens were prepared from the mothers under cesarean section and kept under standardized conditions. The mesenchymal cells were isolated by enzymatic method and their morphological characteristics were examined by microscopy and absorption spectroscopy and their biological properties, in particular expression of CD markers, were determined by flow cytometry. Finally, mesenchymal stem cells were cultured in specific media in order to differentiate into osteocyte and adipocyte. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics.
Results: Morphological and physical examinations by microscope and absorption spectroscopy as well as presenting of CD44, CD73, CD90, and CD105 markers and lacking CD34 and CD45 markers demonstrated the mesenchymal entity of stem cells. Mesenchymal stem cells successfully differentiated into osteocyte and adipocyte.
Conclusion: Human cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells can differentiate into adult fat and bone cells. In this respect, the use of cord-derived mesenchymal cells could be of significant interest in cell therapy.


Main Subjects

Billing, A.M., Ben Hamidane, H., Dib, S.S., Cotton, R.J., Bhagwat, A.M., Kumar, P., Hayat, S., Yousri, N.A., Goswami, N. and Suhre, K. 2016. Comprehensive transcriptomic and proteomic characterization of human mesenchymal stem cells reveals source specific cellular markers. Scientific reports, 6(1): 1-15.
Cannavò, S.P., Tonacci, A., Bertino, L., Casciaro, M., Borgia, F. and Gangemi, S. 2019. The role of oxidative stress in the biology of melanoma: A systematic review. Pathology-Research and Practice, 215(1): 21-28.
Chen, Q., Shou, P., Zheng, C., Jiang, M., Cao, G., Yang, Q., Cao, J., Xie, N., Velletri, T. and Zhang, X. 2016. Fate decision of mesenchymal stem cells: Adipocytes or osteoblasts? Cell Death & Differentiation, 23(7): 1128-1139.
Cho, P.S., Messina, D.J., Hirsh, E.L., Chi, N., Goldman, S.N., Lo, D.P., Harris, I.R., Popma, S.H., Sachs, D.H. and Huang, C.A. 2008. Immunogenicity of umbilical cord tissue–derived cells. Blood, The Journal of the American Society of Hematology, 111(1): 430-438.
Choudhery, M.S., Khan, M., Mahmood, R., Mehmood, A., Khan, S.N. and Riazuddin, S. 2012. Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells from aged mice have reduced wound healing, angiogenesis, proliferation and anti‐apoptosis capabilities. Cell biology international, 36(8): 747-753.
Ciciarello, M., Corradi, G., Loscocco, F., Visani, G., Monaco, F., Cavo, M., Curti, A. and Isidori, A. 2019. The yin and yang of the bone marrow microenvironment: Pros and cons of mesenchymal stromal cells in acute myeloid leukemia. Frontiers in oncology, 9: 1135.
Dennis, J.E. and Charbord, P. 2002. Origin and differentiation of human and murine stroma. Stem cells, 20(3): 205-214.
Ding, D.-C., Chang, Y.-H., Shyu, W.-C. and Lin, S.-Z. 2015. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells: A new era for stem cell therapy. Cell transplantation, 24(3): 339-347.
Fujii, S., Miura, Y., Iwasa, M., Yoshioka, S., Fujishiro, A., Sugino, N., Kaneko, H., Nakagawa, Y., Hirai, H. and Takaori-Kondo, A. 2017. Isolation of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells from cryopreserved umbilical cord blood cells. Journal of clinical and experimental hematopathology: 16019.
Fulle, S., Centurione, L., Mancinelli, R., Sancilio, S., Antonio Manzoli, F. and Di Pietro, R. 2012. Stem cell ageing and apoptosis. Current pharmaceutical design, 18(13): 1694-1717.
Gao, F., Chiu, S., Motan, D., Zhang, Z., Chen, L., Ji, H., Tse, H., Fu, Q.-L. and Lian, Q. 2016. Mesenchymal stem cells and immunomodulation: Current status and future prospects. Cell death & disease, 7(1): e2062-e2062.
Hassan, G., Bahjat, M., Kasem, I., Soukkarieh, C. and Aljamali, M. 2018. Platelet lysate induces chondrogenic differentiation of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters, 23(1): 1-9.
Haybar, H., Maleki Behzad, M., Shahrabi, S., Ansari, N. and Saki, N. 2020. Expression of blood cells associated cd markers and cardiovascular diseases: Clinical applications in prognosis. Laboratory Medicine, 51(2): 122-142.
Hekmat, A., Hatamie, S. and Saboury, A.A. 2022. The effects of synthesized silver nanowires on the structure and esterase-like activity of human serum albumin and their impacts on human endometrial stem cells. Inorganic and Nano-Metal Chemistry: 1-14.
Hekmat, A., Saboury, A.A. and Divsalar, A. 2012. The effects of silver nanoparticles and doxorubicin combination on DNA structure and its antiproliferative effect against t47d and mcf7 cell lines. Journal of biomedical nanotechnology, 8(6): 968-982.
Hoffmann, A., Floerkemeier, T., Melzer, C. and Hass, R. 2017. Comparison of in vitro‐cultivation of human mesenchymal stroma/stem cells derived from bone marrow and umbilical cord. Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, 11(9): 2565-2581.
Huang, Z., Nelson, E.R., Smith, R.L. and Goodman, S.B. 2007. The sequential expression profiles of growth factors from osteroprogenitors to osteoblasts in vitro. Tissue engineering, 13(9): 2311-2320.
Kargozar, S., Mozafari, M., Hashemian, S.J., Brouki Milan, P., Hamzehlou, S., Soleimani, M., Joghataei, M.T., Gholipourmalekabadi, M., Korourian, A. and Mousavizadeh, K. 2018. Osteogenic potential of stem cells‐seeded bioactive nanocomposite scaffolds: A comparative study between human mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone, umbilical cord wharton's jelly, and adipose tissue. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials, 106(1): 61-72.
Khosravi, M., Azarpira, N., Shamdani, S., Hojjat-Assari, S., Naserian, S. and Karimi, M.H. 2018. Differentiation of umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells to hepatocyte cells by transfection of mir-106a, mir-574-3p, and mir-451. Gene, 667: 1-9.
Kobolak, J., Dinnyes, A., Memic, A., Khademhosseini, A. and Mobasheri, A. 2016. Mesenchymal stem cells: Identification, phenotypic characterization, biological properties and potential for regenerative medicine through biomaterial micro-engineering of their niche. Methods, 99: 62-68.
Krause, U., Seckinger, A. and Gregory, C.A. 2011. Assays of osteogenic differentiation by cultured human mesenchymal stem cells. Mesenchymal Stem Cell Assays and Applications: 215-230.
Le Blanc, K. and Davies, L.C. 2015. Mesenchymal stromal cells and the innate immune response. Immunology letters, 168(2): 140-146.
Li, F., Cao, J., Zhao, Z., Li, C., Qi, F. and Liu, T. 2017. Mesenchymal stem cells suppress chronic rejection in heterotopic small intestine transplant rat models via inhibition of cd68, transforming growth factor-β1, and platelet-derived growth factor expression. Exp Clin Transplant, 15(2): 213-221.
Li, N. and Hua, J. 2017. Interactions between mesenchymal stem cells and the immune system. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, 74(13): 2345-2360.
Li, T., Xia, M., Gao, Y., Chen, Y. and Xu, Y. 2015. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells: An overview of their potential in cell-based therapy. Expert opinion on biological therapy, 15(9): 1293-1306.
Martin, D.R., Cox, N.R., Hathcock, T.L., Niemeyer, G.P. and Baker, H.J. 2002. Isolation and characterization of multipotential mesenchymal stem cells from feline bone marrow. Experimental hematology, 30(8): 879-886.
Nadig, R.R. 2009. Stem cell therapy–hype or hope? A review. Journal of conservative dentistry: JCD, 12(4): 131.
Nagamura-Inoue, T. and He, H. 2014. Umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells: Their advantages and potential clinical utility. World journal of stem cells, 6(2): 195.
Nishikawa, E., Matsumoto, T., Isige, M., Tsuji, T., Mugisima, H. and Takahashi, S. 2016. Comparison of capacities to maintain hematopoietic stem cells among different types of stem cells derived from the placenta and umbilical cord. Regenerative Therapy, 4: 48-61.
Pires, A.O., Mendes-Pinheiro, B., Teixeira, F.G., Anjo, S.I., Ribeiro-Samy, S., Gomes, E.D., Serra, S.C., Silva, N.A., Manadas, B. and Sousa, N. 2016. Unveiling the differences of secretome of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, adipose tissue-derived stem cells, and human umbilical cord perivascular cells: A proteomic analysis. Stem cells and development, 25(14): 1073-1083.
Rohban, R. and Pieber, T.R. 2017. Mesenchymal stem and progenitor cells in regeneration: Tissue specificity and regenerative potential. Stem Cells International, 2017.
Sierra-Sanchez, A., Ordonez-Luque, A., Ibanez, O.E., Ruiz-Garcia, A. and Santiago, S.A. 2018. Epithelial in vitro differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy, 13(6): 409-422.
Stoltz, J.-F., de Isla, N., Li, Y., Bensoussan, D., Zhang, L., Huselstein, C., Chen, Y., Decot, V., Magdalou, J. and Li, N. 2015. Stem cells and regenerative medicine: Myth or reality of the 21th century. Stem cells international, 2015.
Tsagias, N., Koliakos, I., Karagiannis, V., Eleftheriadou, M. and Koliakos, G. 2011. Isolation of mesenchymal stem cells using the total length of umbilical cord for transplantation purposes. Transfusion Medicine, 21(4): 253-261.
Vladimirovna, I.L., Sosunova, E., Nikolaev, A. and Nenasheva, T. 2016. Mesenchymal stem cells and myeloid derived suppressor cells: Common traits in immune regulation. Journal of Immunology Research, 2016.
Yousefi, A.-M., James, P.F., Akbarzadeh, R., Subramanian, A., Flavin, C. and Oudadesse, H. 2016. Prospect of stem cells in bone tissue engineering: A review. Stem cells international, 2016.
Zahedian, S., Hekmat, A., Tackallou, S.H. and Ghoranneviss, M. 2022. The impacts of prepared plasma-activated medium (pam) combined with doxorubicin on the viability of mcf-7 breast cancer cells: A new cancer treatment strategy. Reports of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, 10(4): 640.
Zajdel, A., Kałucka, M., Kokoszka-Mikołaj, E. and Wilczok, A. 2017. Osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells from adipose tissue and wharton’s jelly of the umbilical cord. Acta Biochimica Polonica, 64(2): 365-369.